Wednesday, 14 October 2015

Medium Term Notes for Trading by Matthew Roddan

Medium term notes are used to raise working capital and to improve a company’s balance sheet. Private trading programs are quite popular and banking instruments are popular trading tools. Private trading programs are an investment generating option for individuals and corporates alike, though not many have adequate funds to gain entry into such programs. On the other hand, MTNs could be acquired for larger values at discount and then used in private placement programs, says Matthew Roddan of Project Ninety Nine.

Why are MTNs in demand for PPP or Private Placement Programs as they’re called? MTNs have been around since late nineties, with amounts as less as $10 – a billion, with the current highest values crossing $75 billions! There are more than 6500 private trade programs and even big corporations like Harley Davidson, Sony Capital and LG have offered MTNs collateralizing their assets for development or expansion.

Individual investors, hedge funds and portfolio managers prefer private trading programs and play by the rules, where most of their funds are invested in one or more variants of private trading programs, says Matthew Roddan of Project Ninety Nine.  However not many individuals have large sums and many investors are lured by middlemen who take advantage of their ignorance and exploit them into giving up their funds for nothing using fraud or scams. On the other hand, there are real platforms like Project Ninety Nine where investors can pool their funds and get placed in a genuine private placement program and earn profits, which is otherwise impossible when done individually.

MTNs come in handy as they can be purchased for a discount, so one can get an instrument worth 100 million for 10 million or less. Then, it could be invested in PPPs for the duration (medium term) the instrument is valid (1 – 99 years).  As for firms, PPPs are a way to improve their financial credentials and raise capital. Without MTNs many wouldn’t have a shot at these programs, owing to the high investment required. MTNs are a way to invest in PPPs, though not many know how they work.

It is important to understand that MTN buyers do have rights and should request for POF before buying the instrument. If a potential seller refuses or show POF (Proof of Funds), stay clear from them. Remember MT103/23, MT799/999, MT760, etc. are a type of POFs and there’s no way they can avoid showing the POF.

Do you know as a buyer you have a right to see CUSIP / ISIN of the instrument you are buying?

In most cases, you are talking to a broker or middleman who claims to be a seller’s mandate, but you must understand there could be more than just this person and it could be a long chain before the direct seller or buyer is connected. Always ask how many people are involved before proceeding.
No trading platforms communicate with the end party before requirements are met and anyone claiming otherwise is not to be trusted.

While PPPs or Private Trading Programs or Private Placement Programs are real, it is important to identify the right contacts and resources to get through and make money through these programs. Of you wish to avoid fraud and scams tread carefully.

By Matthew Roddan

Tuesday, 13 October 2015

Discounted Cash Flow by Matthew Roddan

When a company’s financials are scrutinized, metrics used to evaluate the same are important. According to Wall Street, a company’s cash flow is the best indicator for a company’s performance. As such, DCF or discounted cash flow analysis is used to determine a company’s worth by estimating future cash flows.

Projected cash flows (operating profit + depreciation + amortization of goodwill - capital expenses - cash taxes - alteration in working capital) are discounted to current value using company’s weighted average costs. In short, DCF is an effective and unparalleled tool for determining share value, which is important for investors.

Also, a few financial scandals only hiked the importance of DCF. With more concerns about reliability of earnings and calculation of P/E or cash flow determination, coming up with a DCF model calls for more efforts than merely dividing share price by income or sales. However, taking this effort ensures investors get a good idea of the key factors like share value, projection of future income or profits, growth ratio, etc. Besides, DCF can’t be manipulated through aggressive accounting practices easily.

While DCF is a very useful tool, it isn’t without shortcomings. It is a mechanical valuation tool that works akin to garbage in, garbage out saying. So, any minor change or change in assumptions could lead to major differences. But, investors should always crosscheck evaluations and allow considerable margin for such changes or errors, when taking decisions. Major investment decisions should not be taken purely relying on DCF calculations alone. What if a client backs off from a contract, or what if interest rates hike unexpectedly or even a competitor cropping up with crushing prices and the firm losing most business? Remember, when expectations change, calculations or derivations based on the assumptions will change along with it! Do you know even reputed investor Warren Buffet and other financial experts and portfolio managers rely on DCF?

Discounting cash flow is tricky and it is important to remember that assuming or predicting future estimates could be meaningful or meaningless depending on the estimates taken and how reasonable they are. Besides, numbers aren’t static and keep changing with changing trends. As for investors, evaluating stock pricing is very important and DCF is a handy aid for calculating the same, says Matthew Roddan of Project Ninety Nine. Do you know stock market speculations are based on DCF? Whether it is acquiring a business, or a property, or investing on stock, DCF helps with speculating approximately.

Sunday, 11 October 2015

Is Money Important? By Matthew Roddan

We’ve all heard the saying “Money can’t buy happiness” several times. Funny how most of our problems are related to money or created by money! Can we really ignore money? Money is a means of exchange and a very essential commodity. Without money there’s nothing one can do today – home, education, food, medical assistance and what not, everything boils down to money.

Right from the time a life is brought into the earth, everything revolves around money. While money is not everything, is does play a key role in our lives and one can never do without it. That aside, what about businesses? Can businesses be commenced or run without money? There’s always a pursuit for money and there’s no denying the fact that enough money can bring one a secured feeling. That’s one reason why many prefer starting their own business, says Matthew Roddan of Project Ninety Nine.

With tumbling economy, many lost their jobs and were left in lurch and succumbed to not being able to manage the change or uncertainty. Even established individuals who had a career for years couldn’t take the hit and look for new opportunities, if at all there were any! By having a business, one can control their destiny and not leave it at the mercy of others – this is one reason that pushes many to start their own business.

It is one reason why many who don’t have the resources for starting a business, look for potential investors or crowd funding to start their dream and take reigns of their future. When potential entrepreneurs have profitable proposals, investors or sponsors are interested in taking the plunge, provided they’re briefed on the possibilities adequately. Matthew Roddanof Project Ninety Nine says that’s one reason why project proposals should be prepared along with financials and statistics to show potential investors. Being prepared is the key to getting funding and Project Ninety Nine brings potential entrepreneurs and investors to discuss on options and take up profitable and potential ventures.

Unlike other sites, this is a real platform where investors discuss and share knowledge and projects that catch their attention are given a thought, analyzed and the site intervenes to come up with a mutually beneficial proposal. In other words, the site stays though the ride and ensures both parties’ interests are taken care of. Handling finances the right way ensures one gets to live comfortably, secure one’s future and what not. Money is a means to an end – one’s security, which influences one’s happiness, freedom and quality of life.

Monday, 5 October 2015

Discounted Cash Flow ~ An Overview

DCF short for discounted cash flow analysis is a way to evaluate a company, project or assets. Cash flows for the future are assumed and discounted considering cost of capital to get the current values. Sum of future cash flows outgoing or incoming is net present value (NPV) that’s taken as price or value of cash flows. Discounted cash flow analysis is used to determine the worth of an investment in simplified terms. It is used in real estate development, investment finance, patent evaluation and corporate financial management.

As Matthew Roddan from Project Ninety Nine says, understanding the probability of risk and profits is very important in an investment decision. Investment decisions are made for profits and understanding what one can expect is very important to determine the suitability of an investment. Exponential discounting is the most common method deployed for discounting, to evaluate future cash flows answering the question – what would be the returns for an investment at a specific rate of return, as against cash flow expected in the future? Hyperbolic discounting is another method, though not deployed widely. Discount rate is the right weighted average cost of capital (WACC) and it reflects cash flow risks.

Discounted cash flow analysis is important for any investor to determine if or not an investment decision is suitable. Let’s look at it this way – consider the investment as a business or a company. DCF is a way to determine a company worth currently, based on calculations for the future. Though this is a useful method, it does have hiccups. Being a mechanical evaluation tool, it is bond by a principle and even simple changes in one value could result in major changes in value. So, instead of determining values for infinity a cap is used – say 10 years. This way, estimation becomes measurable.

Besides, Discounted Cash Flow is a method that uses intrinsic valuation for companies that have predictable flow of cash. It is used for companies that have been around for a while, though it is also used for IT companies that are expected to grow swiftly. This means, when a start-up or developing firm is evaluated, the results could go right or horribly wrong! As an investor, you must be able to weigh your options and prepare for both, says Matthew Roddan of Project Ninety Nine. This way or that, evaluating an investment is important for any investor and determining the right investments is done based on calculations that are probabilities and possibilities, not a definitive. The calculated risk should be something you would be able to manage, irrespective of whether it turns our favorable or not! 

Saturday, 3 October 2015

Dubai International Financial Centre By Matthew Roddan

The Dubai International Financial Centre also called DIFC is located in Emirate of Dubai and is a federal financial free zone in United Arab Emirates. Established in 2004 through a decree, DIFC is a sprawling 110 acres. Legal systems and courts are different from UAE, with a jurisdiction over commercial, corporate, employment, trusts, civil and securities law affairs. The main aim of DIFC is to offer a platform for financial and business institutions to enter in or out of emerging marks in the region and to create an ambiance for progress, growth and economic development in UAE by offering adequate infrastructure and legal backing on par with international standards.

Under the constitution of UAE, DIFC is independent judicially with commercial and civil laws different from that of UAE. DIFC laws are in English to avoid ambiguity and DIFC has courts and judges from jurisdictions with common law like Singapore, England and Hong Kong. Though DIFC has independent laws, the immigration rules and criminal law is the same as UAE. DIFC-LCIA Arbitration Centre is modeled after London Court of International Arbitration. DIFC Authority is the main governing body for DIFC and DFSA (Dubai Financial Services Authority) regulate financial services in DIFC, though it is different from UAE federal Securities and Commodities Authority that governs outside of DIFC.

Financial institutions can submit applications for a license and they’re benefitted from the 0% tax for income and profits, no limitations on Forex or profit/capital repatriation, 100% foreign ownership, business continuity and operational support amenities. Dubai International Financial Exchange is a privately owned financial exchange for DIFC and was listed as DIFX and rebranded as NASDAQ Dubai in 2008. DFSA regulates NASDAQ Dubai.

Dubai International Financial Centre Complex houses a hotel, Ritz Carlton that was opened in 2011. Dubai International Financial Centre also houses art galleries, restaurants and an array of outlets for shopping extravaganza. The Dubai shopping season has garnered acclaim worldwide and the number of tourists visiting during this season shoots through the sky. Many entrepreneurs would like to have a business established in DIFC and it isn’t surprising considering the perks and profits businesses get here. Matthew Roddan of Project Ninety Nine would recommend suitable and innovative project launch here, when an able leader is helming it.

The location of a business is very important and DIFC is one location businesses should consider. Not just for expansions, even new launches that are good would sure thrive and flourish here. There’s a reason why it is called Financial Centre and you must try it, to believe it.

Friday, 2 October 2015

What’s a Medium Term Note?

Medium-term note or MTN is when a debt note maturity period is 5 – 10 years, though technically the repayment duration or maturity period could be less than a year to a 100 years! These debt notes can be issued on floating or fixed coupon basis. Floating rate MTNs are either simple where the coupon is aligned
Euribor +/- basis points or it could be notes with complex structure and linked to indices, swap treasuries, etc.  If they’re issued to investors who aren’t residents of the US, they’re termed "Euro Medium Term Notes". Issuing MTNs to US-based investors calls for a US MTN program.

MTNs can come with fixed maturity date or come with put options, embedded call wherein MTNs could be redeemed per pre-accepted terms or speculations. MTN is usually issued for unsecured investment debts, with fixed rates, though it offers flexibility to both the issuer and investor when it comes to documentation and structure. While many use bank instruments for PPP and have an idea of how MTNs work, many don’t know how it really works! It is funny how they’re rising in popularity and many deploy it for different purposes, without knowing how these instruments work or what it really is! Matthew Roddan of Project Ninety Nine explains MTNs are a great way to get into PPP, especially since not many have the funds required to invest in PPP from their resources. Since PPP is gaining exposure and many would like to know if or not PPPs are what stuffs that make a mythical legend, let’s understand MTNs better.

According to Matthew Roddan, many aspire to invest in PPP but end up being unable to do so by trusting wrong people (brokers) or because they don’t have enough resources. The former is truer and why many think PPPs don’t exist. So, let’s understand MTNs better and how they can be used for PPP. MTNs are instruments of debt issued by banks and are sold to investors with a good face value, annual interest rate and maturity date. So, if you hold a note from Bank of America that’s worth 100 million, with interest rate of 7% each year, you will get 7 million till the instrument matures, after which you can cash it for its worth!

While MTNs are very similar to debt notes, it is more popular because of its price, flexibility, resale potential and option to be bought at a discount instead of its face value. According to Matthew Roddan from Project Ninety Nine, MTNs are available for more than fifty years and can effectively compete with any bank instrument. Since they were available for discounted rate, it became popular after “trading bank instruments” gained notoriety in the secondary market. PPP reign began soon after and Internet has made it even more popular and widely available. If you have an interest in PPP, MTNs Project Ninety Nine are your go-to option.

Friday, 27 February 2015

How to Evaluate Embedded Software Testing Tools

You Can't Evaluate a Test Tool by Reading a Data Sheet

All information sheets look virtually similar. The trendy expressions are the same: "Business Leader", "Remarkable Technology", "Mechanized Testing", and "Propelled Techniques". The screen shots are comparable: "Bar Charts", "Stream Charts", "HTML reports" and "Status rates". It is psyche desensitizing.

What is Software Testing?

Every one of us who have done programming testing understand that testing comes in numerous flavors. For effortlessness, we will utilize three terms as a part of this paper:

Framework Testing

Coordination Testing

Unit Testing

Everybody does some measure of framework testing where they do a percentage of the same things with it that the end clients will do with it. Notice that we said "some" and not "every one of the." One of the most well-known reasons for applications being fielded with bugs is that sudden, and consequently untested, mixes of inputs are experienced by the application when in the field.

Not as numerous people do joining testing, and even less do unit testing. In the event that you have done combination or unit testing, you are presumably agonizingly mindful of the measure of test code that must be created to confine a solitary document or gathering of records from whatever remains of the application. At the most stringent levels of testing, it is not extraordinary for the measure of test code composed to be bigger than the measure of use code being tried. Accordingly, these levels of testing are for the most part connected to mission and security basic applications in businesses, for example, aeronautics, medicinal gadget, and line.

What Does "Mechanized Testing" Mean?

It is remarkable that the procedure of unit and incorporation testing physically is exceptionally extravagant and prolonged; thus every apparatus that is being sold into this business will trumpet "Robotized Testing" as their profit. Be that as it may what is "robotized trying"? Mechanization implies diverse things to distinctive individuals. To numerous designers the guarantee of "computerized testing" implies that they can press a catch and they will either get a "green check" demonstrating that their code is right, or a "red x" showing disappointment.

Sadly this apparatus does not exist. All the more vitally, if this apparatus did exist, would you need to utilize it? Consider it. What would it mean for an instrument to let you know that your code is "alright"? Would it imply that the code is designed pleasantly? Perhaps. Would it imply that it complies with your coding benchmarks? Possibly. Would it imply that your code is right? Earnestly No!

Totally computerized testing is not achievable nor is it alluring. Computerization ought to address those parts of the testing process that are algorithmic in nature and work concentrated. This liberates the product architect to do higher worth testing work, for example, outlining better and more finish tests.

The consistent inquiry to be asked when assessing instruments is: "The amount of robotization does this apparatus give?" This is the substantial hazy area and the essential zone of vulnerability when an association endeavors to ascertain a ROI for instrument speculation.

Life systems of Test Tools

Test Tools by and large give an assortment of usefulness. The names merchants utilization will be distinctive for diverse instruments, and some usefulness may be absent from a few apparatuses. For a typical edge of reference, we have picked the accompanying names for the "modules" that may exist in the test devices you are assessing:

Parser: The parser module permits the apparatus to comprehend your code. It peruses the code, and makes a moderate representation for the code (normally in a tree structure). Fundamentally the same as the compiler does. The yield, or "parse information" is by and large spared in a middle of the road dialect (IL) record.

CodeGen: The code generator module utilizes the "parse information" to build the test bridle source code.

Test Harness: While the test tackle is not particularly piece of the device; the choices made in the test saddle structural engineering influence all different gimmicks of the instrument. So the outfit construction modeling is imperative when assessing an instrument.

Compiler: The compiler module permits the test device to conjure the compiler to accumulate and connection the test bridle parts.

Focus on: The target module permits tests to be effectively run in an assortment of runtime situations including backing for emulators, test systems, implanted debuggers, and business RTOS.

Test Editor: The test manager permits the client to utilize either a scripting dialect or a complex graphical client interface (GUI) to setup preconditions and expected qualities (pass/come up short criteria) for experiments.

Scope: The scope module permits the client to get provides details regarding what parts of the code are executed by every test.

Reporting: The reporting module permits the different caught information to be incorporated into venture documentation.

CLI: A charge line interface (CLI) permits further computerization of the utilization of the device, permitting the apparatus to be summoned from scripts, make, and so forth.

Relapse: The relapse module permits tests that are made against one rendition of the application to be re-run against new forms.

Incorporations: Integrations with outsider devices can be a fascinating approach to influence your interest in a test device. Regular incorporations are with setup administration, prerequisites administration devices, and static examination instruments.

Later areas will expand on how you ought to assess each of these modules in your competitor devices.

Classes of Test Tools/ Levels of Automation

Since all instruments do exclude all usefulness or modules portrayed above furthermore in light of the fact that there is a wide distinction between devices in the level of mechanization gave, we have made the accompanying expansive classes of test apparatuses. Hopeful test instruments will can be categorized as one of these classes.

"Manual" instruments for the most part make a void system for the test outfit, and oblige you to hand-code the test information and rationale needed to execute the experiments. Regularly, they will give a scripting dialect and/or a set of library capacities that can be utilized to do regular things like test declarations or make organized reports for test documentation.

"Semi-Automated" instruments may put a graphical interface on some Automated usefulness gave by a "manual" apparatus, yet will at present oblige hand-coding and/or scripting with a specific end goal to test more mind boggling builds. Furthermore, a "semi-computerized" instrument may be forgetting a portion of the modules that a "mechanized" apparatus has. Inherent backing for target sending for instance.

"Robotized" devices will address each of the utilitarian zones or modules recorded in the past area. Devices in this class won't oblige manual hand coding and will help all dialect develops also a mixture of target arrangements.

Inconspicuous Tool Differences

Notwithstanding looking at apparatus gimmicks and computerization levels, it is likewise critical to assess and analyze the test methodology utilized. This may shroud inert absconds in the apparatus, so it is vital to load your code into the instrument, as well as attempt to manufacture some basic experiments for every strategy in the class that you are trying. Does the apparatus manufacture a complete test bridle? Are all stubs made naturally? Could you utilize the GUI to characterize parameters and worldwide information for the experiments or would you say you are obliged to compose code as you would on the off chance that you were trying physically?

In a comparable manner target help fluctuates enormously between instruments. Be attentive if a merchant says: "We help all compilers and all focuses out of the case". These are code words for: "You do all the work to make our apparatus work in your surroundings".

The most effective method to Evaluate Test Tools

The accompanying few segments will depict, in subtle element, data that you ought to explore amid the assessment of a product testing device. Preferably you ought to affirm this data with active testing of every instrument being considered.

Since whatever is left of this paper is genuinely specialized, we might want to clarify a percentage of the traditions utilized. For every area, we have a title that depicts an issue to be viewed as, a depiction of why the issue is vital, and a "Key Points" segment to compress cement things to be considered.

Likewise, while we are discussing traditions, we ought to additionally make note of phrasing. The expression "capacity" alludes to either a C capacity or a C++ class strategy, "unit" alludes to a C record or a C++ class. At last, please recollect, pretty much every device can some way or another backing the things specified in the "Key Points" segments, your employment is to assess how computerized, simple to utilize, and complete the backing is.

Parser and Code Generator

It is moderately simple to fabricate a parser for C; notwithstanding it is extremely hard to construct a complete parser for C++. One of the inquiries to be replied amid device assessment ought to be: "The means by which strong and experienced is the parser innovation"? Some instrument merchants use business parser innovation that they permit from parser innovation organizations and some have homegrown parsers that they have fabricated testing tester  The heartiness of the parser and code generator can be checked by assessing the apparatus with complex code builds that are illustrative of the code to be utilized for your undertaking.

Key Points:

- Is the parser innovation business or homegrown?

- What dialects are backed?

- Are apparatus adaptations for C and C++ the same device or diverse?

- Is the whole C++ dialect actualized, or are their limitations?

- Does the apparatus work with our most confounded code?

The Test Driver

The Test Driver is the "primary program" that controls the test. Here is a straightforward sample of a driver that will test the sine capacity from the standard C library:



int fundamental () {

skim neighborhood;

neighborhood = sin (90.0);

on the off chance that (neighborhood == 1.0) printf ("My Test Passed!n");

else printf ("My Test Failed!n");

return 0;


In spite of the fact that this is a really straightforward illustration, a "manual" instrument may oblige you to sort (and troubleshoot) this little piece of code by hand, a "semi-computerized" device may provide for you a scripting dialect or basic GUI to enter the boost val